Trends of European and World Glass Industry

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The glass production development and its trends in the Czech Republic is necessary to understand in a context with the European glass industry, and thanks to a strong influence of market globalization, also in the world context. Justification of this view is supported by a fact that most of Czech glass companies are owned by transnational companies. The glass production in the Czech Republic creates 1.5 % of the world glass production (for comparison beer production creates 0.9 %, automobiles create 1.45 %). The glass industry is very strongly export oriented and with regard to the accounted amount of glass per person, it has greater importance for national economy than in the most of European countries.
In comparison with Europe the ratio between container and flat glass is different. The amount of flat glass produced in Europe is half than container glass. With regard to present and planned capacities this ratio will not significantly change in the following years. This division will influence also the situation of the Czech glass industry according to success of individual aggregations within Europe.
The glass industry will change in the whole world. The reason is the finishing crisis, availability of modern technologies, effort of global companies to strengthen, new capacities and a steep development on markets like China, India, Brazil, Turkey, Russia, etc. It is possible to expect that the displacement of capacities from developed countries to developing countries will continue and that strong companies just from the developing economies will assert more and more on global market. Higher participation of global glass companies will appear on these markets now characteristic with a great number of local companies, i.e. either by construction of new plants, or by acquisition of smaller companies. The transnational companies will have to accommodate to local habits in commerce and in personal management.
The production of glass products for common use (in the whole world) will be more automatized what will cause a decrease of manual work share in individual products. The automatized and technologically advanced production will be more and more available in less developed economies. And so, modern technologies will be available also in states with minimum share on lowering of global ecological burden from production, weak social system (low contributions to social system) and cheaper energies. There is a fear that this will be the main competition advantage for producers out of developed countries instead of cheap working force utilized today.
It is probable that the position of main glass producers will change in favour of new global companies from the developing economies (now more than 80 % is produced by less than twelve international groups of companies, with more than 10 thousand employees in each of them). The growing production costs (energy, raw materials and labour prices), increasing legislation burden (a necessity to meet the requirements of “ecological” legislation), taxes, and hard (price) competition will continuously make the position of the European glass industry more difficult. This will support the trend of investment orientation out of the European Union. The question is the position of European currency, and more precisely CZK. The currency strengthening will worsen export, weakening will be export oriented. The situation of heavily indebted economies may cause a new crisis which could very hardly impact the glass industry in the whole Europe. This analysis supposes a positive solution of fiscal problems of heavily indebted European Union countries (especially Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, and Italy).
Individual glass aggregations are dependent on situation on various markets and on the situation of industries using glass semiproducts. As trends in export and import of glass in Europe and in the Czech Republic show, the trend of cheap products import and export of products with higher added value will continually strengthen. This trend is evident in the Czech Republic in utility glass and fashion jewellery.
The main condition of further development from the point of view of competitiveness is extensive and effective research and development in all aggregations. It is valid most of all for technical and special glasses, since only research can ensure these aggregations can stay on the territory of the European Union.

Ecology and environment
Ecological regulations and general understanding of ecology and sustainable development by inhabitants will be a key factor for the glass industry of the European Union. The influence will be both positive, and negative. The continuing orientation to renewable sources and higher energy saving in the European Union where glass products have their representation, will be positive. In the negative sense of the word, the glass industry of the European Union will be influenced by a pressure on lowering energy demand of the glass production and by restrictions in the area not only of greenhouse gases. Departure of Germany as a European economical world power from nuclear energy industry is good and also bad information for European glassmakers. It is good information for producers of components for energy production from renewable sources and insulating glasses. And it is bad information for all glass companies, because this decision will lead with great probability to the increase of energy prices.
Glass products have the advantage in their safety and solved recycling (glass bottle can be made from glass bottle again). People see health advantages of glass containers and popularity of glass containers is an expression of their effort in permanently sustainable situation of environment. Terms like ecology, sustainable development, environment, etc. are more and more embedded in thinking of people and they influence more and more decision-making of European people about buying the given product. It is obvious that a potential of utilization of above mentioned terms and their meeting as a marketing tool is not yet exhausted. There exist efforts of container glass producers, associated in the Fédération Européenne du Verre d´Emballage (hereinafter FEVE) and also flat glass producers, associated in the association Glass for Europe, and some others about emphasis of ecological contribution of glass. The utilization of given potential will demand probably more brisk and more costly marketing in relation to final customers but also to officers on the level of member countries of the European Union and the own European Union, too. Of course, it is not possible to ignore efforts of the Comité Permanent des Industries du Verre Européenne (hereinafter CPIV) and its systematic pressure (including recycling of waste flat glass after reconstruction of buildings).
In the area of ecology and environment three challenges result for the glass industry:
1. Improvement of the own energy balance (decreasing of average energy consumption for the production of one tonne of glass).
2. Development of energy saving products (low emissivity glasses, parts of energy saving light sources, glass insulating fibres, etc.)
3. Development of products for energy production (heat and photovoltaic solar collectors, parts of solar thermal power stations, glass fibres for the production of wind power plants, etc.)
Two ways lead to reduction of energy demanding production of glass products and semiproducts: reduction of energy consumption (insulation, increase of melting temperature by the glass composition change, more intensive combustion, better regeneration and recuperation with following waste heat utilization), and reduction of products weight (at contemporary keeping their utility properties).
Savings are considered to be cheaper than installation and operating of new energy sources. Trends are given in the paragraph devoted to flat glass.
Solar panels (both thermal and photovoltaic) and their location will accommodate to the policy of alternative sources support in individual countries. According to present outlooks their main place will be on roofs of industrial and agriculture buildings, offices and living buildings, and shopping centres. The challenges for further research and development are, e.g. increase of solar panels efficiency, as far as photovoltaic panels the problems of efficiency reduction at partial or complete shading, dependence of efficiency on surrounding temperature, or panels recycling. Also bended photovoltaic panels are trendy. The aim is to reach the efficiency of industrially produced photovoltaic panels approaching 40 % (wide-spectrum solar cells). These equipments exist now in laboratories, they are used for instance in space research and they are very expensive for the present. It is possible to expect that a systematic effort which is now developed by several institutions, will lead to management of economically cost-effective production. Location of common silicon photovoltaic panels on facades is for the present questionable due to significantly decreasing efficiency at shading a part of panel. A solution may be in panels on the base of other materials (CIS – panels on the base of copper, indium, gallium and selenium, nanofibres, etc.) which have lower efficiency but they are not so much sensitive to shading. Glass for solar photovoltaic panels has at present three trends: thin float glass (maximization of transparency), extra clean float glass with minimum colouring oxides, and cast glass with surface structure decreasing reflectivity and increasing solar panels efficiency. Generally, photovoltaic panels are not returnable at present technologies without legislatively determined purchasing tariffs and grants. Thanks to global sales crisis the prices of photovoltaic power stations decreased approx. by 30 %. The price decreases shape up well now and in the outlook the energy production should be cost-effective even without advantaged purchasing prices. The energy demanding production is problematical continuously what is a challenge inter alia for glass companies.
Solar thermal (also called concentrator or concentration) power stations utilize concentrated sun radiation for heating of liquid medium for making vapour driving turbines, or the Stirling motor. This type of power stations is more effective than the present photovoltaic panels, but for the production of electricity in Central Europe it is not suitable because of mild climate. It is dependent on political and economical support of ambitious projects, planned in south of Europe or in north of Africa (e.g. Desertec project).
The continuous fibres for production of composites used e.g. for the production of wind power plants vanes will be constantly developing market.
The environmental policy of the European Union is generally understood as very strict to industrial companies and it leads to the decrease of the competitiveness of the European Union companies what is the other side of coin. A question is, for instance, how the glass product can benefit the global climate when it is produced in countries out of Europe on production lines with minimum or no exhalation limits. The product is so cheap and better saleable on European market that it edges products of companies having invested great amount of money to ecological production. And in addition, it is necessary to account production of further greenhouse gases during transport of finished products to Europe. The strict measures in Europe paradoxically contribute this way to the creation of exhalations which thanks to global understanding of impact on environment, have the same effect as if they had been produced in Europe. Even the increase of unemployment due to redundancies of workers from not competitive companies in the European Union is not negligible. It is necessary to emphasize permanently that energy saving products from flat glass and glass fibres decrease greater amount of CO2 than amount of CO2 liberated during the glass production. The problem is called carbon leakage and it is up to companies and national governments how they influence the possibilities of compensations for the glass industry at least.

Flat glass
Import of Chinese flat glass increased by 320.1 % (expressed in tonnes) and by 256 % (expressed in CZK) in the period from 2006 till 2010. The quality of the flat glass made out of the European Union increased very dramatically.
Chinese companies started to occupy not only markets beyond borders of the European Union, but they assert in investments of new member countries of the European Union (e.g. investments of China in Bulgaria). Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and some other former countries of the Soviet Union – formerly great flat glass importers – will be step-by-step flat glass importers.
Already before 2008 margins of flat building glass and container glass in Europe were very low due to increasing energy prices, which could not be compensated by higher prices because of high competition. The crisis reduced demand for these commodities, in fact set profits to zero and many companies decreased prices below their costs. The price for these commodities will grow only mildly and a high pressure supported by increased imports from Central and Eastern Europe and by import from markets out of Europe, will be developed especially on present West European markets.
The building industry in the Czech Republic in 2010 had the worst position since 2001. There were several reasons: decrease of public orders, stagnation of industrial zones, shopping centres or office buildings construction, construction of flats fell by 25 % and flats just built were very difficult to sale. In spite of this, building glass will have to rely more on flat and commercial building construction and exchange of old glazing with high emissivity. It will have to rely less and less on public orders which will decrease the share on total construction thanks to general trend of saving in Europe. It is possible to account with a support of savings from governments in new and old housing. The higher added value to delivered glasses (including glasses with the so called soft layers) and new products will be the main competition tool against cheap and good quality glass from the edge of the European Union and from Asia.
Modern glass for architecture today and in future too will have to meet several criteria, especially light (transparency of given wave length of light), acoustic, heat-insulating, mechanical, and not least aesthetic.
Building glass will increase its strength at contemporary weight reduction, insulating properties (using new technologies for reduction of glasses emissivity), parts of facades and roofs from glass will utilize solar energy (both for electric energy production, and heat), glazing will be able to produce heat (known technology of special transparent thermal foil), self-clouding glasses will enable partial or complete non-transparency of walls in interior and windows towards exterior, electro-chromic glasses for the building industry will find customers more and more, facades of commercial buildings will be able to communicate with surroundings thanks to incorporated LED and OLED light sources (change of building colour, texts, variable structure and moving pictures for advertising and entertainment), multifunctional design of building glass (production of electric energy, thermal insulation, source of thermal energy, communication with surroundings in one), application of nanotechnologies with building glass will increase. The present trend is a utilization of extra clean glass with low reflection intensifying lightness of the building due to outstanding transparency of glass. As the trends in the present architecture show, the facades in future will not be “squared” but they will be more round and even dynamic. It will be reached both by bending of great sizes of glass, and by utilization of facades systems, like for instance already existing triangular network of glasses.
Production of automotive glasses is dependent on the automotive industry. The reactions are practically immediate due to deliveries of automobile parts directly to the line. Stimulations of some economics in the form of the so called “cash-for-clunkers” helped also to the producers of automotive glasses and forecasts on steep production decrease after subsiding stimulations were not fulfilled. Thanks to a huge world production of cars great financial means to research are invested. Automotive glasses with new and improved properties are not exception. Glass is on one side thinner at contemporary keeping of mechanical properties, and on the other side glass is used as a constructional (reinforcing) element in some parts of modern cars. Laminated glasses will be more and more applied in the higher class of cars both in side-screen and rear glazing thanks to better acoustic and heat-insulating properties and integration of new functions. The trend of further functions integration to automotive glasses will continue, e.g. transparent layers for glass heating, communication elements (radio, TV or GPS aerial), rain sensors, rear mirrors holders, hydrophobic coatings preventing adhesion of water drops on glass while raining, heated parts for look-through of always more often cameras, special foil on windscreen for head up displays (HUD) – information projecting directly on car windscreen (actual speed, speed limit, navigation, etc.), self-clouding glasses changing transparency after pressing the operating button, electro-chromic glasses, surface treatment preventing freezing and dewing of glass, etc.
The relative area of car glazing will enlarge. In the foreseeable time it will not meet any significant competition of plastics due to the inertia of markets, lowering of glass weight, not yet solved problems during the production of such glasses and their properties. In the outlook of five and more years it is possible to expect increasing competition.

Container glass
This aggregation will permanently more and more fight both against competition out of the European Union, and also competition of materials. Fortunately for the glass industry, glass is established by consumers as “noble” material for storage and sale of food. According to the research of the FEVE three quarters of European consumers prefer food packed in glass. The greatest danger for glass containers stay technologically continuously improved plastics in production of which is today given an emphasis on recycling ability and material stability. Glass as material will keep its position in the outlook of several years during utilization of potential in ecology as a marketing tool (100 % recycling, health safety).
Demand would grow dynamically in developing countries of Oceania, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America, further on in countries like China, India and New Zealand not only thanks to good condition of local economies, but also thanks to growth of sales not only alcoholic drinks in these countries. Global Industry Analysts, Inc. (GIA) supposes that after 2011 several years´ growth will come. Europe should stay the greatest market. Russia was considered till crisis to be one of the most perspective markets (double-figure percentual growth of production), and therefore, great investments were oriented to reconstruction of present and especially construction of new capacities. In 2009 a decrease by 15 % appeared. A question is filling of new and present plants capacities even in case of continuing growth of glass container sale.
A growing problem will be competition in the production, where producers from the European Union have to face up to permanently stronger import due to growing capacities in countries out of the European Union. The transport of glass cullet and following transport of products made of them to great distances, what burdens transport infrastructure and mainly contributes to the creation of greenhouse gases, is a strong argument of the European Union producers.
From the technological point of view, the aim is to reduce the raw materials, energy consumption and bottles weight what would increase the competitiveness of glass on market with containers. Although technologies do exist already since the 1980´s, the reduction of bottles weight was not preferred at all in the last 20 years. So the weight of bottles grew, especially because of customer demand on bottles reliability (breakage up to 5 bottles from 100 thousand bear bottles in filling line is permissible) and the bottles shape and decoration was also changed due to marketing reasons. The customers´ interest in a trouble-free operation and thus unbreaking bottles together with an effort to engage with interesting shape and decoration in shop shelves, prevailed above the interest of producers (and consumers) on lighter bottles. With regard to continuing promotion of ecological concept of a company further to sustainable development, the container glass producers will utilize this trend more and more (ecology as a marketing tool). It is possible to expect wider application of light-weight bottles even like an answer to the plastics competition. The present technology of a narrow-neck pressed-blown bottles has its limits, however projects of one-step shaping exist which should decrease the glass thickness from today 1.1 mm to 0.7–0.8 mm (the up to-date lines reach these values). Beside light-weight also demand for again lockable containers, containers for heating in microwave ovens, etc., exists.
Containers for the pharmaceutical industry are an important perspective and growing market. This commodity, as one of a few, showed an increase in sales in the time of crisis. Health friendly products showed to be a stable market and it will continue also in the following period.

Utility glass
Reaction of utility glass on crisis was very quick and steep and this aggregation recovers relatively well. Utility glass and fashion jewellery are very dependent on the customers´ expectations (in case of negative expectation of their financial situation development they forego superfluous things). In both cases the markets are different than in case of container, technical and flat glass, and it needs another marketing access and orientation to final customer.
It follows from published data that in Europe and in Northern America there exists a significant demand for cheap glass with lower glass quality, realization and design, but unbeatable price. The demand is supported by a trend of utility and household glass sale in supermarkets, hypermarkets and also via Internet. The sale through these commercial ways was often understood as a danger for traditional utility and household glass producers.
Development in the following years will depend on the situation of consumer´s markets and subsiding of crisis. In case of the world economy growth, market can bring interesting profit how it is visible in historical experience. Beside cheap products from the East also a quality design promotes, produced in medium and great companies by very sophisticated technologies with acceptable price. This access requires necessary investment to product design and modernization of production, innovations, development and outstanding marketing. Further on, technologies will develop, e.g. one-step drawing of glass foot, production of more complicated and demanding shapes and new methods of decoration.
As it is visible, the orientation to small and as far as design interesting series will be worthwhile continuously to small and medium companies. Demand for original and quality glass will increase with economical growth of medium class.
In case of small glassworks a way to customer is to open the door and show traditional production just in front of visitors´ eyes and to sale own products, and as the case may be including of further services oriented to the tourist industry. The orientation to artistic and very valuable production as far as design without storage directly on order, do not stay aside the success. The condition is, however, a fine-sounding name and high quality.
Thanks to legislation from Brussels limiting the lead content in crystal glass, lead free glasses will be trendy constantly. Most of greater producers of utility glass have their own type of glass suitable for dish washing machines. Such approximation to customers´ needs will be continuously a competitive advantage.
Very strong player not only on utility glass market is Turkey with great investments to the production increase, new technologies and machines, research, development and education. Turkey together with China have a great potential of growth of utility glass production, sale on their markets and export to industrial economies.

Fashion jewellery
Especially fashion jewellery, lighting glass and partially also utility glass will continuously feel a strong competition from plastics. Although plastics according to presentation in the last Ambiente 2011 fair have got on the edge of interest, they will be used as a cheap alternative to glass products which will be bought by customers thanks to low price and sufficient quality.
In spite of fact that sale of fashion jewellery and lighting glass has a chance to grow at good outlook to economical renewing of world markets, market share will lose together with further traditional materials at the expense of plastics. The advantages of plastics, predominantly polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA), in comparison with glass are generally low production costs, easy possibility of bending, lower weight and greater impact resistance. A disadvantage is on contrary lower chemical stability and hardness what causes easy scratching of the product. Fashion jewellery products not only from PMMA increased their quality in the last years and they are able to imitate the most of fashion jewellery, lighting glass and chandelier pieces, as well. Customers in this case do not recognize the difference between glass and plastics and they often prefer price and smaller weight in comparison with lifetime and feeling of quality material. New markets will be important for the fashion jewellery, e.g. cars interiors.

Glass fibres
Glass fibres are applied in the automotive industry, building industry, in the production of wind power plants, petroleum and gas. Promising potential is in the production of composites where continuous and staple glass fibres are used. Profiled, hollow fibres and fibres used as filling to modern plastics are trendy.
Due to crisis the capacities were limited and finally put into operation and enlarged again in the last years in Europe. A great development of glass fibres production is visible in China which imported these commodities for dumping prices. In spite of this the new antidumping measures against the import of Chinese fibres is by the European Union producers regarded as insufficient and imposed import tariff low due to a systematic lobbing of China.
Glass fibres are a perspective market commodity where it is possible to suppose growth of demand and still greater growth of capacities. New products with higher added value and application of fibres in new types of composites for new products represent a good chance.
Optical glass fibres for transfer of signal to short distances (up to 50 m) will be continuously substituted by plastic optical fibres which are cheaper, more resistant, need lower input and they are easier attachable. Fibres for transfer to medium distances (multi-mode, 50 to 550 m) and for long distances (one-mode) are permanently perspective.

Technical and special glasses
Since technical and special glasses include a number of products it is not possible to make unambiguous conclusions in this aggregation, and therefore, trends of only several commodities are given here.
Market with laboratory glass, tubing, glass industrial apparatuses and laboratory device glass will develop from chemical and food industry demand, especially.
Glass for LCD monitors is very dependent on mood and consumers´ expectations. This glass reached great growths of sale, however, in the end of 2008 a decisive decline appeared and it turned in the second quarter of 2009. Owing to continuing digitalization of TV signals and growing general global availability of electronics, including computers, these markets will grow but the growth will not be so great like markets with solar panels.
Thin glasses intended especially to mobile equipment (mobile telephones, MP3 Players, tablets, etc.) seem to be interesting products. Glasses with thickness from 0.4 to 0.7 mm are used at present. Thanks to their thickness they are light, resistant to scratching and breaking. Market with thin glass shows great growth potential. In the outlook, it is possible to utilize even the flexibility of thin glass which at thickness less than 0.1 mm and correct composition is possible to roll up like paper, the term “e-paper” is used.
World demand for optical lenses is moving within 800–900 mill. pieces per year. From this amount more than 200 mill. pieces (22 %) is produced in Thailand, although all raw materials are imported. Other producers are Europe (18.2 %), Mexico (9.4 %), and China (8.1 %). The market is perspective, however with regard to dynamically growing markets of this commodity, quality research and development supported by permanent investments, will be demanded.
Glass bricks (especially with modern design and colours) became popular in interiors in the last years. The commodity is dependent predominantly on the building market and building reconstructions.
Producers of glass for light sources change their production programme. The sale of classic bulbs is step by step restricted and since 2012 it should be forbidden in the European Union at all. Producers change their production to saving light sources gradually. The market is occupied both by producers from and out of the European Union, and by producers mainly from China. Recycling, substitution of health dangerous materials, high production costs and energy demand of the production (connected with air pollution), which after accounting to total savings of sources within lifetime significantly decreases contribution for environment, stay a challenge for this perspective market.
As far as other commodities like quartz glass, foam glass, glass technical spheres, ballotine, welding glass, etc., it is difficult to estimate the trend of development with respect to lack of information.
A great challenge is an increasing of glass strength considered to be key factor for development of the glass industry and its products. Based on studies, glass has a potential to increase its strength fifty times at minimum. However, technologies which could reach it during continuous and mass production do not exist now. Another potential is possible to find in low melting glasses and on contrary in glasses melted at higher temperatures. Realizations of these challenges depend on research and development.

Glass machinery and equipment
As well as glass producers the producers of glass machinery are oriented to export in spite of relatively great number of glassworks on the Czech Republic territory. In view of the fact that great reconstructions and innovations in technically most important glassworks are controlled by mother companies mostly from abroad and foreign suppliers of mother companies are often preferred, the producers of glass machinery and equipment in the Czech Republic will have to concentrate especially to foreign markets. As well as in Germany, the Near East, Russia, India, China and South America are perspective markets. The competition will be continuously very strong. Generally, European producers cannot compete to low prices of producers from Asia, but they can offer meeting of several general conditions. Czech companies will continuously compete with availability of equipment and contemporary good quality.
General trends of machines for the glass industry can be round up as follows: flexibility (enabling wide range of products and reconstructions) and a change of assortment in given production programme (especially in container and utility glass), especially as far as flat glass construction of lines for concrete production programmes (building glass, material for automotive glasses, glasses for solar panels, special thin glasses with thickness less than 1 mm, glasses with thickness more than 15 mm), fast lines with relative wide range of output change, new supplementary equipment installed during operation, meeting ergonomic and safety aspects, elimination of complicated mechanisms, compact and autonomous control systems of production, 100 % control of products quality, optical (contactless) measurement, etc.
General trends of glass melting aggregates are: improvement of energy balance of aggregates, reduction of air pollution, increase of melting efficiency, improving of insulation, increase of efficiency of waste heat utilization, use of quality materials for aggregates construction, flexibility in amount of produced glass per day (possibility of reduction the output of aggregate according to necessity), longer aggregate lifetime and alternative prolongation of aggregate lifetime during operation (new materials and technologies for these purposes), short time for reconstruction, integral numerical simulations of aggregates in the phase of aggregate draft for gaining required properties, complicated expert systems for control of aggregate state and course of glass melting (especially sensors and software), utilization of sustainable energy sources for melting, etc.
Adaptation to needs and possibilities of given market and specialization on maximum profitability of given assortment will be a priority. Permanent increasing of melting outputs in one tank will not be an effort.
According to statistics of American conventional fuel prices, fuel prices should not change more significantly in a long term perspective, and mainly the price order should not change. Electricity will be the most expensive continuously (related to a unit of delivered heat), medium price will be for oil and the cheapest will be natural gas. According to some experts the future lies unambiguously in oxygen melting. All-electric melting and electric boosting will have continuously incomparable role in tanks with necessity of better melting control and at given types of glass.

Orientation of the glass industry
will considerably depend on willingness of glass company owners to invest to the production, new technologies, employees´ education and research. Tradition is an interesting argument, but it does not bring any competition advantage.
The Czech Republic has very well managed system of education in the glass branch from secondary school to trade colleges till universities. This system is dependent on demand from industry which is high at present. Problem is to persuade young people that glass production is meaningful. The glass industry is in this area very little active and not flexible. Knowledge about glass industry will not change oneself, but it is necessary to bring good information. Beside the FEVE projects in which also companies from the Czech Republic take part, there exist important projects for support of education in the area of the glass production, e.g. the TE-ERA project where beside courses also exhibitions are organized. It is interesting that the last exhibition called “Glass (not) traditionally” met with positive interest of public in glass production, but it showed much misrepresented imaginations about glass industry and its products. Glass is by laymen often connected only with hand making of utility glass.
The Czech glass industry need scientific and research capacities. Beside state support of research it is necessary to attract foreign capital to the Czech Republic, ready to invest to the research and advanced technologies. If Czech glassworks will become only producing subsidiary of transnational companies without utilization of scientific and research potential, the Czech Republic loose research in this area.
 


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